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At Bracebridge Infant and Nursery School we understand that literacy is a foundation to accessing learning in all other areas of the curriculum and literacy learning is encouraged, developed and supported here with great importance and focus at every opportunity.


Literacy has three main aspects: speaking and listening, reading and writing.  Each of these aspects supports the others so all are taught with equal importance.  We strongly believe that high quality phonics teaching and learning and high quality speaking and listening experiences build the strongest foundations for good reading and writing development.

Therefore, as we are an infant school supporting the youngest of learners, we place a strong emphasis on these key elements during each and every school day.  We have literacy opportunities embedded throughout our curriculum and it is used to explore and develop learning in all other subjects. 


Speaking and listening

At Bracebridge Infant and Nursery School you will see speaking and listening taking place in every classroom during all lessons as we believe that high quality speaking and listening teaching will lead to high quality learning in all areas of the curriculum.    Many of our lessons across the curriculum require the children to work collaboratively, either in pairs or small groups, which encourages key skills such as listening and responding appropriately and negotiating.  Our literacy topics will usually begin with an emphasis on speaking and listening.  During literacy lessons we use techniques such as drama, freeze framing and hot seating to encourage the children to explore the text they are sharing as a class more thoroughly before they carry out any writing activities.  This allows the children to have developed their ideas about the text before they are asked to write, promoting more thoughtful and interesting written pieces of work.



Phonics is taught discretely for 15 to 20 minutes at the start of each day through the use of Letters and Sounds, which follows a systematic synthetic phonics approach.  We use a range of resources to support this teaching and learning including Jolly Phonics.  Letters and Sounds is split into 6 phases of teaching and learning.  The children are first given the opportunity to practise their speaking and listening skills, often building on from what has already been delivered during the children’s time in their nurseries before joining us.  The development of the children’s speaking and listening skills continues throughout each year group.  Next, the children are taught one way of spelling every sound in the English language, e.g. ‘s’, ‘j’, ‘ch’, ‘ai’ ‘or’ and ‘ear’, at a rate of approximately 4 sounds per week.  They also learn how to apply this knowledge to the reading and writing of words, captions and sentences.  Through encouraging the children to applying their phonics learning throughout the day, most children quickly become able to have a go at reading simple words and sentences and writing phonetically plausible words and sentences independently.  Once the children are secure in their knowledge of one spelling for each sound and how they can use and apply this knowledge, the children are taught to recognise alternative spellings for sounds, e.g. ai, ay, and a_e, and alternative pronunciations for one spelling of a sound, e.g. ‘ow as in cow’ and ‘ow as in mow’.  Next they progress onto the finer points of spelling, such as how to add prefixes and suffixes and the rules for how to make words plural.  In each phase, alongside the teaching of phonics is the introduction of reading and spelling tricky words, such as ‘said’ and ‘come’, that cannot be sounded out and have to be learnt as a whole word.  It is expected that the majority of children will be secure in their knowledge and use of Phase 4 when they leave the Early Years Foundation Stage and secure in their knowledge and use of Phase 6 by the end of Key Stage 1, although not all children will achieve this.  At Bracebridge Infant and Nursery School, we fully understand that all children learn at their own rate and, as such, our lessons are differentiated to ensure that all the children’s needs are met within each session. This enables us to effectively deliver any additional support or challenge that specific groups may need at the appropriate level.  This may be done through extra support within a whole class session or through separating the children into smaller, more differentiated groups with different activities and outcomes planned for each.     



Reading: children read and understand simple sentences. They use phonic knowledge to decode regular words and read them aloud accurately. They also read some common irregular words. They demonstrate understanding when talking with others about what they have read.


We encourage parents and carers  to read with their child every night.  All children have a blue book bag and a Home Reading Record book. We invite parents to sign or make a comment to help support their child’s reading at home. Children  have the opportunity to change their reading books regularly.


We encourage a love and respect of books and it is helpful when children spend time at home talking about books and reading. Encouraging the children to ask questions and say what is happening in the pictures and why are good starting points.  Whilst out and about, we encourage the children to look at the print around them - in shops, posters, road names, signs, etc.  


When children read daily their names are then moved up the reading rocket display which is in every classroom. Reading 5 times a week means children reach the moon, receive a smelly sticker and a raffle ticket to win a prize at the end of a week.


We have an extensive range of books in school including those from , Oxford Reading Tree, Big Cat Phonics, Songbirds, Rigby Star and Project X. 


Guided reading

In Key Stage 1, guided reading takes place in each classroom for 15 to 20 minutes 4 days a week.  The children are split into groups and throughout the week they rotate around a selection of tasks, mainly focussed on reading, but also on other literacy skills such as speaking and listening.  One group each day reads the same book together in a group under the guidance of the class teacher.  This book is chosen specifically to meet the learning needs of the group that the teacher is working with and is used to teach new reading skills and give the children an opportunity to practise their developing reading skills collaboratively with their peers and with the support of the teacher.  During this session there is also a teaching assistant available to support either another group of children working on a task or specific individuals on an identified need.   


In the Early Years Foundation Stage guided reading takes place in a similar format but may be delivered in smaller groups as appropriate to the children whilst the rest of the class are engaged in other adult led or child initiated activities.  Once a child is assessed to be ready to benefit a guided reading session, they read in a group with the teacher once a fortnight. 



Shared writing

As with shared reading, shared writing mostly takes place during the introduction to a literacy lesson.  During shared writing the children explore how they can include the key features of the focus genre in their own writing.  They may use a shared reading text as a stimulus and they will work together, suggesting and modifying ideas, as the teacher models good practise.


Guided writing

During the activity part of the literacy lesson the teacher will work with one or more small groups to support and develop their writing.  The teacher may scribe for the group as they compose co-operatively or alternatively they may offer verbal prompts and cues to support and encourage the children to be successful with their writing task.


Independent writing

Children are given many opportunities for independent writing within literacy lessons and throughout the curriculum.  These opportunities take place through both teacher initiated and child led activities.  Great importance is given to any writing or mark making that the children partake in throughout the whole school day.  In Key Stage 1, we use the concept of VCOP and  BIG Writing to encourage the child to complete an independent extended piece of writing weekly based on a given topic or theme. Furthermore, our cross-curricular teaching approach encourages independent writing from our children across the curriculum.



We use a progressive scheme for handwriting in every class. The aim is that the majority of children will be using joined up writing fluently and accurately by the end of year 2.  In the Early Years Foundation Stage, letter formation is first introduced alongside the children’s phonics learning to provide them with a multi-sensory approach. Specific handwriting session happen to the whole class daily in Key Stage 1 but there is an expectation that handwriting is considered during all writing activities.